Cet article est à propos de la catégorisation de tweet, j'espère que les non-anglophone arriverons à suivre avec les schémas
Last year I was conducting some research about ways to improve the usability of Twitter. At the same time I was told about work about machine learning similar to what StumbleUpon does. I though that a similar feature in the context of Twitter or any reader apps would be awesome. So I started digging the problem and find out that even without strong machine-learning knowledge it was possible to come up with solutions that in theory could give good results. There might be better, more deeper solutions of the problem, what I want is to outline the algorithm used to achieve such application. But I did not implement it because I believe that without GraphDBs the solution will a) not be scalable b) not be flexible enough to add new data c) not flexible enough to implement (new) algorithms, plus I wanted to have my own application (suite) to implement this features in.
What I call a smart application is an application that goes forward user needs and guess or at least try to guess and learn from users actions/inputs and environnement. Given the context of twitter application, I am thinking about users and tweets categorization and users and tweets recommendation. I put the features in this order because recommendation use categorization to take its decisions, but it is not the only information it uses. Best smart features are seamlessly integrated to the current use of the application, that's what I try to do in the following post. First how does it look like ?
Catégorisation de tweet et d'utilisateurs
Given a tweet, I wanted to put it in a category, so that at the end of the day I have properly organised list of tweets #LifeHacks kind of tweets, #Music tweets, #RandomSmartLinks and #Python stuff properly organized. While at the same time, given a tweet being able to know what it is talking about without having to click on it or read it. This are really interesting information and is, if doable and applicable, promising for longer texts, and it is. Given a Twitter user there is a number of tweets that are tagged plus the network of followings which have also tagged their tweet, we have the first level of tweet features, that can be used to build category with. Each user is associated with the labels he or she used in her or his tweets and the tweets of her or his network.
Every red-purple edge has a weight but it's not represented. With this data design we can already add most interesting labels in user profile, but tweet hashtags are not always interesting as features of users and tweets, for this matter we can use a white-list or black-list that can be manually or automatically generated with most popular hashtags but we can also use semantic expansion, based on a corpus of hierarchical labels that can be easily retrieved from Wikipedia and well organized websites like github, bitbucket, delicious, Amazon, newsgroups, forums, dmoz and the like. It's true that the extracted data might need to be cleaned but a simple blacklist based on Wiktionary will make the manual work way much easier. Similarly labeling texts aka. features extraction from random websites can be made easier using this blacklist method. By semantic expansion, I mean retrieving the most probable generic word that is linked to a hashtag, using a hierarchical taxonomy make this easier, a networked taxonomy make the algorithm a bit more complex but doable. Given this data/knowledge we can build the second level and third level of labels. The second level of labels are the labels extracted from content of tweets or links. The third level is labels we find with semantic expansion which are represented in green in the following graphic, they are just like any other labels:
With this knowledge we can compute tags for both user and tweets and if there is some trouble to find the right label, for instance given the word «Python», we need to distinguish the animal from the language, we can use the other labels to find out using a collocation weight edges in the network of labels. The fourth level of labels, is given a tweet with hastags stripped, perform with it a full-text search on a database of Wikipedia extended with linked articles and link tweets with the best wikipedia article results. Tweet categorization is then just a matter of matching the user interests with the labels associated with tweets. Recommandation d'utilisateur et de tweet The easiest way to recommend users is by looking up an user's network of followings and retrieve the most common users. Similarly it is also possible to recommend tweets based on the «+fav» and «RT» of your network. But this is bound to the first degree of your network, you can't discover a tweet or an user at 6 degrees of separation. To discover tweets and user you can also use the item-item algorithm used to power Amazon recommendation algorithm, but you might hit a dimension problem. If you have categorized your user and tweets, this can also be achieved to do user and tweet recommendation by matching user or tweets with similar labels. The following give an example of a possible implementation to recommend users:
Tweets recommendation is similar.
More like this